The concept of digital economy is an activity directly related to the development of digital computer technologies, which includes services for the provision of online services, the most important of which are: Internet banking, Internet commerce, Internet marketing, Internet games, crowd funding, etc.
There are two approaches to the term digital economy. The first approach is classic: “the digital economy is an economy based on digital technologies, and at the same time it is more correct to characterise exclusively the field of electronic goods and services.” Classic examples are telemedicine, distance learning, the sale of media content (movies, TV, books, etc.). The second approach is an extended one: “the digital economy is an economic production using digital technologies.” Some philosophically interpret this term broadly: “the digital economy is a virtual environment that complements our reality”. The key factor of digital transformation in the activities of market entities is the development of digital culture.
Industrial companies have adopted a digital economy development strategy to strengthen their positions in the market: in 2000 – Denmark, in 2005 – Singapore, in 2008 – Australia, Hong Kong, Great Britain, New Zealand, in 2009 – the European Union as a whole, in 2010, Canada 2012, in Malaysia, in 2013 – South Korea, in 2015 – India.
Modern information and communication technologies are significantly changing all social relations, and we note with confidence that new technologies not only change the way of production of products and services, but also create new opportunities for the realisation of civil rights, self-realisation of the individual, gaining knowledge, teaching a new generation and spending leisure time. The measures of the State Policy of the Kyrgyz Republic are aimed at stimulating the development of the telecommunications and IT sectors, improving legislation and technical regulation. These are necessary elements for the successful development of digital infrastructure.
It should be noted, that domestic representatives of this market have been able to establish themselves as highly qualified specialists in this field. In particular, the IT company “Qoovee” represented Kyrgyzstan at the 5th Moscow International Forum “Open Innovations”, which was held on October 26-28, 2016 at the Skolkovo Technopark. In addition, Kyrgyz IT specialists are known as good performers in the global off shore programming market.
So, in June 2012, the head of the Board of Directors of Google, E. Schmidt, and the executive director of the analytical centre Google Ideas, J. Cohen, visited Kyrgyzstan. The purpose of their visit was to assess the potential of the ideas of Kyrgyz IT specialists and get acquainted with the Internet services market in Kyrgyzstan. After that, Google opened a division for Central Asia. Since then the President of the Kyrgyz Republic signed a decree declaring 2019 the Year of Regional Development and Digitalisation of the Country”.
The Kyrgyz Republic has achieved some success in digitising the electoral system, integration and interaction of state institutions through a single Tunduk system, some services of state institutions have been digitised and are available through a single electronic service portal to which there is access via Internet networks.
The success of the Kyrgyz Republic in the digital transformation of the economy is largely due to the joint movement of the EAEU countries towards the digital economy. Analysis by the World Bank showed “that the introduction of a common digital agenda significantly increases the growth of the EAEU’s GDP, and digital dividends will be $42.3 billion due to the removal of legal barriers, $1.6 billion due to the digitalisation of public procurement, $1.3 billion due to public services of open government, 0.5 billion dollars — at the expense of cross-border electronic state services.”
For the further development of digital technologies, both external and internal barriers are relevant. There is a group of internal barriers of a financial nature: insufficient budgets, high cost of projects, high costs of operating systems. External barriers are no less relevant, primarily related to the instability of the economic situation in the country, the insufficient level of development of ICT infrastructure, as well as due to the unwillingness of suppliers and consumers to use digital technologies.
Thus, the full-scale use of the achievements of digital technologies runs through all the components of the Strategy 2040 and the national priorities of socio-economic development of the Kyrgyz Republic. Kyrgyzstan will actively pursue reforms to create a competitive digital economy through the formation of really attractive conditions for entrepreneurs, the use of innovative and nature-saving technologies. The widespread introduction of information technologies in production and management should become a priority of the development policy. In accordance with section V of the Strategy 2040 “Priority directions of development of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2023”, digital technologies should be introduced as a priority in such areas as education, healthcare, tourism, agriculture, telecommunications, banking, light industry and construction.
Anarbekova Nazgul Anarbekovna